The purpose of this experiment is to show the kidneys ability to alter the output of urine in response to the ingestion of different liquids such as tap water, isotonic saline (gatorade or any other sport drink), and coffee. Various fluids affect the kidney in different ways. My hypothesis states that coffee will cause the kidneys to excrete urine more frequently than the other fluids consumed in this experiment. This experiment is very helpful in daily life as I think about what fluids ingested cause more frequent trips to the restroom. In anatomy, urinary system, the kidneys filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. The medical field that studies the kidneys and diseases of the kidney is called nephrology (nephro- meaning kidney is from the Ancient Greek word nephros; the adjective renal meaning related to the kidney is from Latin rēnēs, meaning kidneys). In humans, the kidneys are located in the posterior part of the abdomen. There is one on each side of the spine; the right kidney sits just below the liver, the left below the diaphragm and adjacent to the spleen. Above each kidney is an adrenal gland (also called the suprarenal gland). The asymmetry within the abdominal cavity caused by the liver results in the right kidney being slightly lower than the left one while the left kidney is located slightly more medial. In a normal human adult, each kidney is about 10 cm long, 5.5 cm in width and about 3 cm thick, weighing 150 grams. Together, kidneys weigh about 0.5% of a person's total body weight. The kidneys are "bean-shaped" organs, and have a concave side facing inwards (medially). On this medial aspect of each kidney is an opening, called the hilum, which admits the renal artery, the renal vein, nerves, and the ureter. The outer portion of the kidney is called the renal cortex, which sits directly beneath the kidney's loose connective tissue/fibrous capsule. Deep to the cortex lies the renal medulla, which is divided into 10-20 renal pyramids in humans. Each pyramid together with the associated overlying cortex forms a renal lobe. The tip of each pyramid (called a papilla) empties into a calyx, and the calices empty into the renal pelvis. The pelvis transmits urine to the urinary bladder via the ureter. The kidneys are retroperitoneal, which means they lie behind the peritoneum, the lining of the abdominal cavity. They are approximately at the vertebral level T12 to L3. The upper parts of the kidneys are partially protected by the eleventh and twelfth ribs, and each whole kidney is surrounded by two layers of fat (the perirenal and pararenal fat) which help to cushion it. Congenital absence of one or both kidneys, known as unilateral or bilateral renal agenesis can occur.